Death, Aging, Rejuvenation (Part 1)
I would like to raise a question: Is Rejuvenation possible and how to approach it? This is just my own opinion about possible procedures. I used certain techniques based on a theory. As strange as it sounds some of those techniques and procedures might actually worked.
There are several hundreds theories of aging. New and old ones. Different authors classify them differently.
I would divide all those theories into 2 groups :
1. Theories of Deterioration from external cause. "Wear and tear". Theory of free radicals damage is most fashionable at present time. Antioxidants are considered a cure. Benefits of caloric restriction are often explained by that theory. The theory has good objective support in scientific literature. Other theories of this group included changes of bacteria in the gut, radiation and accumulation of mutations during life of an individual, etc. - many more of those theories were discussed in the XX century. 2. Internal clock - theories.
I would divide the "internal clock" theories into 2 more subgroups: 1. Internal clock on the level of cell. Telomeres shortening is the most discussed in literature at present. 2. Internal clock on the level of organism. Growth hormone changes was a recent example of discussion.
Authors are usually very cautious and objective in scientific literature. Telomeres are usually discussed in connection with "immortal" cancer cells. Caloric restriction is discussed as a mean of longevity (not rejuvenation per se). Level of growth hormone (GH) or insulin-like growth factor drops in aged persons.
Mass media speculates wider: telomeres restoration - possible immortal life, growth hormone will rejuvenate you, etc.
Original scientific studies usually do not speculate about this. In no way for example drop of GH level in elderly means that just giving it back will make you young again.
Scientific literature rarely discuss "Rejuvenation" as it is. Authors mostly talk about "longevity". This is very different story. Longevity in a wheelchair is very distinct from a youth playing soccer. One proven method to reach longevity is caloric restriction. Often they say it is the only proven technique. Using antioxidants as a method to prolong life is in the same category. To put simple, the Theory says: nutrition produce products of oxidation - peroxides, etc. These products damage DNA, proteins, etc. Cell ages. Caloric restriction switches metabolic pathways. There are less free radicals. Hence longevity. Antioxidants work in similar way - they remove free radicals. Another speculation is that caloric restriction starting at young age delays reproductive age in animals and this slows down biological clocks and prolongs life until an environment with high nutrition supply is found. Animals look small and undeveloped.
Caloric restriction significantly (25%-100% and more) prolonged life in worms, flies, spiders, rats, mice, etc. Experiments on monkeys and humans are under way and will take decades.
Well, it is all good in experiments and theories. Some argue: why in this case prisoners of concentration camps do not live longer. Another example came from "Scientific American" - a person had caloric restriction of something 20 years or more - no effect - he just looks like very thin undernourished person of 50 years. Examples of opposite opinion also exist (tribes or groups with low food consumption or high antioxidants consumption have more centenarians than general population). Maybe you really need to start at 10 years of age, look malnourished and weak for the whole life and live to 100 years, getting to your puberty at 25. Antioxidants also bring many controversy. Vitamin E did not show many benefits though it was a big hope for prevention of many diseases of old age. And so on. Today there are big trials that disprove the theory. Tomorrow - great experiments that confirm the theory, at least partially. Many big trials and experiments are published in leading journals - Science, Nature, PNAS, New England JM, JAMA, etc.
One bias for caloric restriction experiment in my opinion is following. Rats live in cage 30cmX60cm for their whole life. There are at least five rats or 20 mice. They live couple years and die. During the experiments they are celebrities when they live 5 years - some lucky ones. The Food is a balanced mixture of nutrition. Caloric restriction is - 60% of their regular meal. They practically don't move - there is no space in cage. Mostly they sleep whole day. Sometime they fight and mate. They live in those conditions at Yale, at Med U of South Carolina, at Russian State Medical University and I think everywhere else. To compare our fellow humans we would place 10 people on area of 20 square metres (200 sq. feet) for 50 years in a row, feeding them with what they want but all the same - let say junk food from McDonalds.
I remember my cat (who was partially wild) stole meat and ate until it started to vomit. He repeated it many times when he was able to steal some steak or whatever. The same happens in wild - lions have maybe one successful hunt out of ten. When they catch a prey, they eat like crazy. Much more than they can digest at the moment. So it looks like there is an instinct. Eat as much as possible. This is not a joke - 60% of people in western countries are overweight. Abundant high calorie food and lack of activity. It does not seem that for these people any internal mechanism restricts food consumption. Applying this back to rats, we can see that what is considered normal consumption - "ad lib" - maybe actually big overfeeding of the animals in these cages.
In this case 60% of caloric restriction would be just what rats need, just what the calories they spend in lazy, uneventful daily life. So called "control", "normal" rats - that fed as they usually fed might be compared for fat overweight humans. They consume junk food. They prone to the bunch of diseases of obesity and low activity. Heart diseases, strokes, variety of cancers, arthritis, etc.
In this case all the hype about caloric restriction would just be brought to the business of mere balancing diet and activity in so called "calorie-restricted animals". I haven't seen any discussion of this problem. I might be wrong. This is why I use caloric restriction for myself. I did not work with worms and spiders. But my guess would be that they all are also in artificial standardized conditions. "Control" worms might be also overfed. To put rats into bigger cages (to increase activity in control group and balance calories and catabolism) would be incredibly expensive.
Even at present conditions because of "animal lovers" and bunch of other regulations and considerations (e.g. sterile conditions), the price of animal housing is sky-high.
You would say animals in wild would live longer because they balance activity and consumption. Well, recently I read that life span of animals in wild is shorter than animals in captivity. Correct me if I am wrong: pandas live 15-20 years in nature and 20-30 in zoos, bears 20-25 in nature and 30-40 in captivity. Civilization has certain benefits - vaccinations, good medical care, more or less good hygiene. So just moving into wild conditions wouldn't make you younger or allow to live longer.
Now, to discuss rejuvenation procedures, I would need to talk about aging first. In this case Rejuvenation could be considered as reversal of aging (deterioration). Longevity is different story - it is prolonged life span. Rejuvenation supposedly should lead to longevity. But longevity is not equal to Rejuvenation. Aging leads to Death eventually. It is easier to discuss from that end.
All written here is just plain speculation, take it with a grain of salt.
- continued in Part 2
About The Author
Aleksandr Kavokin, MD,PhD
Chris Cate on short-term vacation rentals: 'Act now' - The San Diego ... - The San Diego Union-Tribune
Chocolate Is Good For You!
Great news on the chocolate front! Chocolate is good for you. Under certain circumstances.
The 9 Most Common Mistakes to Avoid When Reading a Food Label
NutrientsFat, Sugar, Sodium and CarbohydrateThe sections on a food label shows the name of a nutrient and the amount of that nutrient provided by one serving of food. You may need to know this information, especially if you have high blood pressure, diabetes or are eating a diet that restricts certain nutrients such as sodium or carbohydrates.
How My Health Was Restored Through Glyconutrition
My name is Mildred Shears. I'm retired and I live in the Minnesota Northwoods with my husband, George, our German Shorthair, Bodhi, and our senior citizen cat, Cinnamon.
Snack Attack - How to Keep Your Hunger Between Meals from Getting the Best of You
The Benefits of SnackingYou may feel regretful about snacking, but snacks aren't necessarily bad for you.In fact, mini-meals several times a day can be beneficial.
Bumble Bee Fish Oil - Do You Need It?
The makers of Bumble Bee Tuna generated some buzz today by announcing they will be producing a fish oil supplement with their Tuna's name on the bottle. None of the reports mention if they are using an particular standization and quality processes or what methods they are using to ensure that environmental toxins are not being concentrated into their supplement.
The In-Office Emergency Nutritional Kit
Tired of having stare-downs with those boxes of Krispy Kremes, trays of brownies, and platters of cookies some well-intentioned but nutritionally clueless co-worker brings into the office? Be prepared for these and other nutritional setbacks at your office by stocking up on a few key items that will have your desk a veritable nutritional emergency kit.Water: Bottles and bottles of water.
10 Flaxseed Facts to Improve Your Nutrition
Flaxseeds may be the smallest seeds you will find in any health food store, but there is nothing little about their enormous contribution to our overall health. Discovered in 5,000 BC, these little brown seeds were worshiped for their magical properties, such as healing the intestines, skin conditions, improving energy, and overall health.
Fighting Fatigue and the American Diner Breakfast
(Part 1 of a Special 5 Part Series on Body Awareness)I went out for lunch yesterday and ordered a portobello mushroom wrap with some fresh vegetables, no dressing at the local sandwich and coffee shop.As always, it was a struggle to find something at a deli, restaurant or take out place that fits my somewhat stringent and holistic dietary requirements.
Substitutes for Butter
Instead of Butter: Use top quality, cold pressed, extra virgin olive oil, from the first pressing, or flaxseed oil. The taste of virgin olive oil is appealing to millions of people around the world, so why not adopt it to your taste?Flaxseed oil is prized for health reasons and not for its taste.
Preventing Heart Disease: What to Eat
About 12.6 million Americans currently have heart disease.
Oat Bran Can Help Prevent High Cholesterol
The natural antioxidants in Oat Bran can significantly reduce blood cholesterol levels by suppressing the adhesive molecules which make blood cells stick to artery walls, researchers reported.When blood cells stick to artery walls and cause inflammation, plaque deposits build up and narrow the passageways through which blood flows.
The Benefits Of Drinking Herbal Teas
Herbal teas have long been known to have medicinal benefits as well as being tasty to drink! Some of my favorite teas are chamomile tea, jasmine tea and ginger tea. Each of these has a distinctive taste as well as health benefit.
Taste the Good Health Fruit Called Apple
"To eat an apple before going to bed will make the doctor beg his bread"Apple is a cholesterol and fat free fruit packed with loads of vitamins and nutrients. Apple juice is delicious.
Organic Food - The Benefits of Natural and Organic Produce
Having spent most of my life living off of junk food, I was pretty shocked when I started learning about what goes into the produce we consume every day from the grocery store.Most of the produce you would buy at the grocery store has been genetically modified to be more appealing to the customer.
Beverages Boost Calorie Intake, But Many View Fluids As Calorie-free!
Beverages - and not just alcohol - are a significant if little recognized source of calories in North American diets. Yet many people seem to believe that if a calorie is ingested in fluid form, it's a freebie.
Balanced Diet: Know More on Healthy and Nutritional Balanced Diet!
In this fast paced world, good nutrition may sound very simple but it is indeed really difficult to practice it. We eat too many processed foods or we tend to miss some meals.
The Versatility of Actinase Protein Complex
The ingredients list found on the back or side panel of every commercially available food product - with few exceptions - serves as the consumer's best starting point for understanding the real contents of each product. It discloses the ingredients that make up the product, sorted in order from most abundant to least abundant.
What Really Happens To The Food You Eat
After we have eaten a meal -- and often we do this in a hurry, without much chewing, under a lot of stress, or in the presence of negative emotions -- we give no thought to what becomes of our food once it has been swallowed.We have been led to assume that anything put in the mouth automatically gets digested flawlessly, is efficiently absorbed into the body where it nourishes our cells, with the waste products being eliminated completely by the large intestine.
Policosinol and Cholesterol Reduction
The word cholesterol has become synonymous with poor health. Indeed, one does not typically hear the word used, or see it printed, unless it points to yet another distressing fact -- that high cholesterol is the number one factor for coronary heart disease, and the number one cause of heart attacks[i].
7 Bad Eating Habits You Should Change Immediately
People are obsessed with dieting and weight loss! Don't believe me? Just tune-in to any source of advertising..
|home | site map|